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    a) Stick to the run-in/engine break-in period ethics. Do not cross 55 kmph for the first

    1000 km and 70 kmph up to 2000 km.

    b) Avoid frequent braking and clutching.

    c) Avoid sudden and over revving.

    d) Shift gears at appropriate speeds: 1st gear 0-10 kmph, 2nd gear 10-20 kmph, 3rd gear

    20-30 kmph, 4th gear 30-40 kmph, 5th gear 40-50 kmph, 6th gear 50-60 kmph.

    e) Always ride vehicle in top gear between 50-60 kmph.

    f) Do not park vehicles in direct sunlight to avoid petrol evaporation.


    Electronic Stability Control

    (ESC), also referred to as electronic stability program (ESP) is a computerized

    technology that improves the safety of a vehicle's stability by detecting and reducing loss

    of traction (skidding). When ESC detects loss of steering control, it automatically applies

    the brakes to help "steer" the vehicle where the driver intends to go. Braking is

    automatically applied to wheels individually, such as the outer front wheel to counter

    oversteer or the inner rear wheel to counter understeer.

    3. ABS AND EBD:

    The anti-lock braking system (ABS) monitors wheel speeds and

    releases pressure on individual wheel brake lines thereby preventing lock-up. During

    heavy braking, preventing wheel lock-up helps the driver to maintain steering control.

    Electronic brakeforce distribution (EBD) automatically varies the amount of force

    applied to each of a vehicle's brakes based on road conditions, speed, loading, etc.

    Always coupled with anti-lock braking systems, EBD can apply more or less braking

    pressure to each wheel in order to maximize stopping power whilst maintaining vehicular



    Experts agree that roughly 70% of braking effort should

    go to the front wheel and 30% to the rear. Front brakes require more effort because

    weight transfer from slowing down will shift the bike's balance from the rear wheel to

    the front, thereby allowing the front tire to handle more load. When there is less

    downforce on the rear tire, it becomes much easier to lockup and slide that wheel,

    resulting in a loss of control. The front, however, is less likely to slip because of the

    weight transferred to that end. The 70/30 braking ratio can shift slightly based on the

    type of bike you are riding. Cruisers can handle more rear braking because they carry

    more weight over their rear wheel while sport bikes can tolerate higher front braking

    effort since their forks are more vertical and their wheelbases are shorter.


    Traction Control system optimises grip and stability of

    the car on the road during acceleration by measuring wheel rotation. It stops wheel spin

    by reducing engine power or temporarily applying the brakes to that wheel, thereby

    allowing the car to accelerate smoothly even on slippery surfaces.


    The hill-

    start assist is a variant of hill-holder used by some automatic transmissions as well as

    newer manual transmissions. The system prevents the car from rolling backwards when

    the car finds itself on steep inclines. Hill Descent Control facilitates a smooth and

    controlled hill descent in rough terrain surfaces without the driver needing to touch the

    brake pedal. When on, the vehicle will descend using the ABS brake system to control

    each wheel's speed.


    First of all, tubeless tyres are also prone to get

    punctured and are not completely puncture proof. The concept of a tubeless tyre is that it

    helps avoid sudden air loss in case of a puncture. In case of a punctured tubed tyre, the

    tyre as well as the tube inside get ruptured and air can escape out of the gap between the

    tube and tyre. However, in a tubeless tyre, the nail gets lodged inside the tyre and stays

    there, with very less air loss depending upon the magnitude of puncture. You can drive in

    this state without doing any harm to the tyre (except if the puncture is severe, or if the

    nail is abnormally large). Also, tubeless tyres offer better grip and are safer at higher

    speeds in case of a high speed puncture. This is because tube tyres tend to heat up

    quickly and burst if you are consistently doing higher speeds whereas tubeless tyres do

    not burst except on very rare occasions.


    We all know that when it comes sports bikes or bikes that

    have O-ring chain setup, lubrication is a must to enjoy smooth and linear acceleration.

    My biker brother and fellow youtuber Vikas Rachamalla's video is very informative

    because he gives an in-depth explanation of how and what needs to be done to lube your

    motorcycle chain in a methodical manner to ensure it works perfectly fine and also offers

    maximum life. Listed below is a direct link to that video. You can copy paste the link to

    the address bar and watch the video.




    This is one major, major thing that almost everytone overlooks

    or takes for granted. Many people just go by what the "tyre pressure check person" at the

    petrol pump says and fills in air as per his advice. Those guys might be experienced but

    same tyre pressure doesn't work for all vehicles. Most of the cases of skidding and wheel

    locking happen due to not maintaining the correct air pressure. Please stick to the user

    manual recommendations provided by each company. If you think it is too less, you can

    up the pressure by two or three points max, but not more than that.


    Launch control operates by using an electronic accelerator

    and a computer program. The software controls the acceleration based on engine

    specifications to make the car accelerate smoothly and as fast as possible, avoiding

    wheelspin, engine failure due to over-revving, or clutch and gearbox problems.


    In track races, once the racer hits the long straight, he tries to

    up the gear to the max and let the bike rip across. Though all of this is done pretty

    quickly, every second or even nanosecond counts in races, which is why we have

    something called Quick Shifters. With the Quick Shifter you don't worry about the

    throttle or the clutch, just tap the gear lever and the sensor will do the rest for you. The

    way this is achieved in most cases is by simply replacing the gear shift rod with another

    gear shift rod incorporating a mechanical sensor, which is connected to the ECU. Under

    acceleration, as you shift up, this mechanical sensor informs the ECU of an impending

    gear change. The ECU either cuts the ignition or cuts fueling to the engine just about

    long enough to neatly slot the next gear into place. The result is six times faster gear

    changes and with utmost precision each time.


    Öhlins or Öhlins Racing AB, is a manufacturer of high-

    performance suspension systems for automotive, motorcycle, mountain bike,

    snowmobile, and ATV use. It was founded by Kenth Öhlin and is the #1 manufacturer of

    suspension for motorcycle and cars within aftermarket, OEM, and motorsport with over

    300 motorsport titles.


    Metzeler has been around for 130 years and

    has always been ranked as one of the best. However, Pirelli and Metzeler joined forces a

    few years ago. It is believed that Pirelli is going to be marketed more toward the sporting

    side of motorcycle tyres, while Metzeler will edge closer to the cruiser and touring riders

    who love high-mileage tires. Pirelli and Metzeler racing tyres both are being

    manufactured by Pirelli. All tyres are produced in one factory located in Breuberg,

    Germany. Pirelli's patented zero degree steel construction is used throughout the range.


    Brembo is an Italian manufacturer of

    automotive brake systems, especially for high-performance cars and motorcycles based in

    Bergamo, near Milan. It was founded by Emilio Bombassei Italo Breda in Bergamo,

    Italy in 1961. Brembo specialises in performance braking systems and components, as

    well as conducting research on braking systems. "ByBre" stands for "By Brembo" and is

    an Indian subsidiary of the same company.


    In motorcycles, the engine has 2 intake & 2

    Exhaust valves as compared to 1 intake & 1 exhaust valve, which comes with a 2 valve

    engine. A typical 2 valve engine has just 1/3 combustion chamber head area covered by

    the valves, but a 4 valve head increases that to more than 50% area. Because of this, flow

    area of intake & exhaust port/passages leading to valves get increased. This facilitates

    induction of more quantity of charge (air-fuel mixture) and also evacuation of all burnt

    gases inside the combustion chamber thereby ensuring faster, cleaner, & more efficient

    combustion. The result is increased fuel efficiency, better engine performance/power,

    crisper throttle response, and great pick-up at all engine speeds. The 4 valve engine can

    also be revved up to much higher RPMs easily, thereby allowing the rider to enjoy their

    respective sports bike's performance.


    Generally speaking about

    motorcycles, the fewer the cylinders, the lower it will rev and the more low-end torque it

    will have. The inline 4 motor however has the last laugh when it comes to the top end

    grunt. A motor with larger, heavier pistons is going to have a lower rev ceiling than one

    with more, lighter pistons. Thus, a triple won't usually rev as high as a similar inline-four

    of the same displacement. However, the larger individual cylinders will usually allow for

    greater power output at lower rpm than the smaller ones. A triple also tends to give out

    lesser vibrations than an inline 4. Also motorcycles with an inline three cylinder engine

    tend to be somewhat sleeker design wise.


    A motorcycle with

    liquid cooling is smoother and more resistant to breakdown than and air-cooled engine.

    A liquid cooled engine can produce more power/torque than an air-cooled one. A liquid

    cooled engine can also maintain better temperature control. Air-cooled engines are fuel

    efficient, affordable, and require lesser engine space when compared to that of liquid

    cooled engines. The maintenance cost too is higher in case of liquid cooled engines when

    compared to that of air-cooled ones. Liquid cooled engines offer better riding

    experience, but in some extreme cases the liquid starts spilling out. Overall, the liquid

    cooled engines are more refined, smoother, and calmer than air-cooled engines.


    Bikes with carburetors put

    out a little more pollution when compared to bikes with fuel injection. Fuel tends to

    evaporate in case of carbureted engines. Fuel injection systems are sealed shut, so they

    do not allow unburned fuel to evaporate. The air fuel mixture is more precise in case of

    fuel injected systems when compared to bikes with carburetors. All of this of course

    results in better fuel efficiency for fuel injected bikes when compared to bikes with

    carburetors. Bikes with carburetors are easier to maintain and play with whereas

    remapping the ECU in case of fuel injected bikes is more expensive and so is the overall

    maintenance cost. Cold startability is also improved with fuel injection systems when

    compared to bikes with carburetors.


    To know how ABS

    works, you can check out that link on the same page. Now coming to single channel and

    dual channel ABS. As the name suggests, single channel ABS controls the braking of

    only one wheel, which usually the front wheel. In most cases, the front wheel is what

    locks up really easily because we are supposed to use more front brake pressure when

    compared to the rear brake pressure. You can check out my "Braking Pressure" link on

    the same page to know how much pressure you need to apply on front and rear brake

    while riding a bike.


    Anti-Slip Regulation (ASR) is a traction control

    system that prevents the wheels from spinning under acceleration by reducing engine

    torque. It is active at speeds above 40km/h.


    On the highways you might end up doing constant speeds

    for long empty stretches of road. This is where you can set it on cruise control and the

    vehicle would maintain steady acceleration without you using the accelerator until you

    revoke that function.


    The speed limiter ensures that the vehicle doesn't cross the set

    speed even if you press the accelerator.


    It's main objective is to avoid

    traffic accidents due to under-inflated tires by early recognition of the malfunction of

    tires and also reducing rolling resistance, therefore increasing overall fuel efficiency.

    This system keeps the driver informed of the real time tyre pressure of all four wheels

    through Multi Information Display.

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